skip to Main Content
The smarter way
to do assignments.

Please note that this is just a preview of a school assignment posted on our website by one of our clients. If you need assistance with this question too, please click on the Order button at the bottom of the page to get started.

I’m trying to study for my Writing course and I need some help to understand this question. provide a concise two paragraph focusing on the main points discussed in your assigned readings. These are essentially summaries that should also capture the central argument being made. In historical discussions, remember that time perspective and specific examples are critical in the understanding of events.***On YouTube, watch “Second Italo-Ethiopian war documentary [Full]” 1:39:56WWII Impact continued below…Shift in balance of Powers—As the leading powers in the world, and dominant colonial powers in Africa, Britain and France were destroyed by the war. Actually France itself lost its independence to Germany. The USA and USSR emerged as the new super powers and both of them were anti-colonial. This provided a new environment for the Pan-Africanists and African nationalists to push for freedom and independence. African experience in the war—Thousands of African were recruited by the Allies to serve in war. They were trained in new weaponry and they served in the forefront alongside white soldiers. Thus, the war was educational in many respects as it was psychologically liberating to African soldiers who no longer saw whites as invincible. Most of the Africans returned from the war with this attitude, one which became indispensable in the struggle for independence. For example, Ahmad Ben Bella of Algeria, Waruhiu Itote and Bildad Kaggia of Kenya joined the armed struggles and political parties to liberate their countries.United Nations Organization (UNO)– This world body that was formed in San Francisco in October 1945 to replace the defunct League of Nations, adopted a Charter that emphasized the need to respect human rights everywhere. It was an anti-colonial body that actually established several desks and commissions to address human rights issues around the world. It provided a much needed platform for the colonized to air their grievances that threatened to embarrass the colonial powers, pressuring them to embark on reforms. African nationalism benefitted greatly from this organization as African aspirations of freedom found their way to the UN Assembly. The Asian Influence —When the war broke out, the Indian nationalists led by among others M. Gandhi and J. Nehru successfully pressed the British for concessions to have their independence after the war. India gained independence in 1947 and with this the dismantling of the British Empire had begun. Soon, India joined the UNO and British Commonwealth of Nations as an equal member, where it also helped to represent African grievances. Through other bodies such as the Afro-Asian Solidarity since 1950s, Indian nationalists kept regular contacts with African nationalists and encouraged them in their demand for independence. Many African nationalists including, Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta and Nelson Mandela were influenced by India’s nationalists. Actually, Nkrumah’s Positive Action and Mandela’s Defiance Campaign strategies were modelled on Gandhi’s civil disobedience.Chap. 4—The 5th Pan-African Congress This congress was organized by the Pan-African Federation (PAF) that was formed in 1944 in anticipation of the end of the war. This congress was held in 1945 in Manchester, England. The purpose was to deliberate and strategize regarding freedom and independence of Africa and the black world. The congress was presided over by Dubois and Dr. Peter Milliard. It was attended by leading Pan-Africanists such Padmore and Makonnen, and from the African continent Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Kamuzu Banda, Wallace Johnson and Obafemi Awolowo. Basically, all the Pan-African groups we have discussed and new ones, including Workers’ Association of Bermuda, African National Congress of South Africa, and the National Council of Nigeria and Cameroons were represented. This congress was different from the earlier congresses in terms of strategies for attaining freedom:It resolved that the struggle should not be fought in the western capitals but back in the colonial territories. The leadership that was in attendance was asked to return to their individual countries and organize against colonialism
It resolved that colonialism should be fought in every way possible, including the use of force or violence
It recognized the central role of the trade unions and African war veterans in waging the struggle for freedom
These strategies were adopted by many as Kenyatta returned to Kenya in 1946 and Nkrumah to Gold Coast (Ghana) in 1947 and joined political parties against colonialism.The PAF continued with its pro-independence activities using its paper, the “Pan-African” that had a wide circulation in Africa. This alarmed the colonialists so much that the publication was banned in East Africa. But because of the departure of Pan-African leaders like Kenyatta and Nkrumah to Africa, among other factors PAF began to decline. However, the match towards African independence continued to gain momentum.In French Africa, Leopold Senghor called for greater autonomy within the French Union instead of self-Government. The African Democratic Rally (RDA) of Felix Houphouet-Boigny pressed for the same, i.e., economic, political and social reforms, not independence. This was followed by the passage of the loi Cadre that destroyed RDA and allowed internal autonomy Franco-Phone colonies. But that began to change when French Africans rejected their poor and patronizing treatment as French and demanded freedom.Three important events happened that hastened the independence of Africa and its Pan-African dreams. In 1952, there was a coup or revolution in Egypt led by Gamal A. Nasser and other young military officers against corrupt King Farouk. They were also opposed to the continued presence of British military bases at the Suez Canal. In October the same year, the Mau Mau Rebellion erupted in Kenya against British settler colonialism. And in 1954, the long and bloody Algerian War of independence broke out. Another important event was the convening of the Bandung Conference in April 1955 for Asian and African independent countries. The conference called for an Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation, and to also fight against colonialism. Among those at those in attendance were Josef Tito of Yugoslavia, J. Nehru of India, Indonesia’s Sukamo, Nasser and Nkrumah. This Afro-Asian Solidarity played a major in ending colonialism. In 1957, Ghana became the first black African country to achieve independence with Kwame Nkrumah as its leader. Then in 1958, Committee of African Organizations (CAO) was formed in London whose membership spread to African students throughout Europe and USA. Its central aim was African unity as evidenced by its paper “United Africa”. CAO’s members included Simon Kapwepwe, Oliver Tambo, and Isaac Kambona who later became important leaders in their countries’ independence. All Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Kenneth Kaunda, Milton Obote and Hastings Banda gave speeches at the meetings convened by this organization. It would take acrimonious meetings and differences to eventually form the Organization of African Unity (OAU).***On YouTube, watch “Second Italo-Ethiopian war documentary [Full]” 1:39:56WWII Impact continued below…Shift in balance of Powers—As the leading powers in the world, and dominant colonial powers in Africa, Britain and France were destroyed by the war. Actually France itself lost its independence to Germany. The USA and USSR emerged as the new super powers and both of them were anti-colonial. This provided a new environment for the Pan-Africanists and African nationalists to push for freedom and independence. African experience in the war—Thousands of African were recruited by the Allies to serve in war. They were trained in new weaponry and they served in the forefront alongside white soldiers. Thus, the war was educational in many respects as it was psychologically liberating to African soldiers who no longer saw whites as invincible. Most of the Africans returned from the war with this attitude, one which became indispensable in the struggle for independence. For example, Ahmad Ben Bella of Algeria, Waruhiu Itote and Bildad Kaggia of Kenya joined the armed struggles and political parties to liberate their countries.United Nations Organization (UNO)– This world body that was formed in San Francisco in October 1945 to replace the defunct League of Nations, adopted a Charter that emphasized the need to respect human rights everywhere. It was an anti-colonial body that actually established several desks and commissions to address human rights issues around the world. It provided a much needed platform for the colonized to air their grievances that threatened to embarrass the colonial powers, pressuring them to embark on reforms. African nationalism benefitted greatly from this organization as African aspirations of freedom found their way to the UN Assembly. The Asian Influence —When the war broke out, the Indian nationalists led by among others M. Gandhi and J. Nehru successfully pressed the British for concessions to have their independence after the war. India gained independence in 1947 and with this the dismantling of the British Empire had begun. Soon, India joined the UNO and British Commonwealth of Nations as an equal member, where it also helped to represent African grievances. Through other bodies such as the Afro-Asian Solidarity since 1950s, Indian nationalists kept regular contacts with African nationalists and encouraged them in their demand for independence. Many African nationalists including, Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta and Nelson Mandela were influenced by India’s nationalists. Actually, Nkrumah’s Positive Action and Mandela’s Defiance Campaign strategies were modelled on Gandhi’s civil disobedience.Chap. 4—The 5th Pan-African Congress This congress was organized by the Pan-African Federation (PAF) that was formed in 1944 in anticipation of the end of the war. This congress was held in 1945 in Manchester, England. The purpose was to deliberate and strategize regarding freedom and independence of Africa and the black world. The congress was presided over by Dubois and Dr. Peter Milliard. It was attended by leading Pan-Africanists such Padmore and Makonnen, and from the African continent Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Kamuzu Banda, Wallace Johnson and Obafemi Awolowo. Basically, all the Pan-African groups we have discussed and new ones, including Workers’ Association of Bermuda, African National Congress of South Africa, and the National Council of Nigeria and Cameroons were represented. This congress was different from the earlier congresses in terms of strategies for attaining freedom:It resolved that the struggle should not be fought in the western capitals but back in the colonial territories. The leadership that was in attendance was asked to return to their individual countries and organize against colonialism
It resolved that colonialism should be fought in every way possible, including the use of force or violence
It recognized the central role of the trade unions and African war veterans in waging the struggle for freedom
These strategies were adopted by many as Kenyatta returned to Kenya in 1946 and Nkrumah to Gold Coast (Ghana) in 1947 and joined political parties against colonialism.The PAF continued with its pro-independence activities using its paper, the “Pan-African” that had a wide circulation in Africa. This alarmed the colonialists so much that the publication was banned in East Africa. But because of the departure of Pan-African leaders like Kenyatta and Nkrumah to Africa, among other factors PAF began to decline. However, the match towards African independence continued to gain momentum.In French Africa, Leopold Senghor called for greater autonomy within the French Union instead of self-Government. The African Democratic Rally (RDA) of Felix Houphouet-Boigny pressed for the same, i.e., economic, political and social reforms, not independence. This was followed by the passage of the loi Cadre that destroyed RDA and allowed internal autonomy Franco-Phone colonies. But that began to change when French Africans rejected their poor and patronizing treatment as French and demanded freedom.Three important events happened that hastened the independence of Africa and its Pan-African dreams. In 1952, there was a coup or revolution in Egypt led by Gamal A. Nasser and other young military officers against corrupt King Farouk. They were also opposed to the continued presence of British military bases at the Suez Canal. In October the same year, the Mau Mau Rebellion erupted in Kenya against British settler colonialism. And in 1954, the long and bloody Algerian War of independence broke out. Another important event was the convening of the Bandung Conference in April 1955 for Asian and African independent countries. The conference called for an Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation, and to also fight against colonialism. Among those at those in attendance were Josef Tito of Yugoslavia, J. Nehru of India, Indonesia’s Sukamo, Nasser and Nkrumah. This Afro-Asian Solidarity played a major in ending colonialism. In 1957, Ghana became the first black African country to achieve independence with Kwame Nkrumah as its leader. Then in 1958, Committee of African Organizations (CAO) was formed in London whose membership spread to African students throughout Europe and USA. Its central aim was African unity as evidenced by its paper “United Africa”. CAO’s members included Simon Kapwepwe, Oliver Tambo, and Isaac Kambona who later became important leaders in their countries’ independence. All Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Kenneth Kaunda, Milton Obote and Hastings Banda gave speeches at the meetings convened by this organization. It would take acrimonious meetings and differences to eventually form the Organization of African Unity (OAU).
Requirements: 1 page , two paragraph

GET HELP WITH THIS ASSIGNMENT TODAY

Clicking on this button will take you to our custom assignment page. Here you can fill out all the additional details for this particular paper (grading rubric, academic style, number of sources etc), after which your paper will get assigned to a course-specific writer. If you have any issues/concerns, please don’t hesitate to contact our live support team or email us right away.

How It Works        |        About Us       |       Contact Us

© 2018 | Intelli Essays Homework Service®