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I don’t understand this Nursing question and need help to study.In the scenario assignments, you are asked to reflect on responses to the presented scenario. This should not just be writing down your first reaction or what you already know. Reflection involves critical thinking, which means rethinking your existing knowledge and previously held opinions in light of what we have learned about theories of ethics, logic, and reasoning. You will need to question your existing knowledge and beliefs. To complete each scenario assignment: Complete the entire scenario.
Compose your reflection in a Word document and be sure to address, at a minimum, the following questions:Why do you feel the way you do about the issue presented?
Of the four responses offered in the scenario, which do you feel is the most ethical and why?
Support your conclusions with evidence and specific examples from the textbook, as well as other sources as needed.
Your reflection must be 1-2 pages in length and follow APA formatting and citation guidelines as appropriate.
ScenarioAnimal research scenarioPerson 1-Hello everyone, thank you for joining our session on the ethics of animal research. Because animals share may physiological and genetic similarities with humans, medical research that uses animal testing can be tremendously helpful for furthering medical science. But do we have the right to subject animals to the imprisonment, pain, and suffering that this research often entails? This topic is tricky, as opinions range from agreeing with all research as it currently stands to completely outlawing any kind of animal research as unnecessary and unethical. Is there a reasonable middle ground? An atmosphere punctuated by extremists on both sides may make animal rights advocates seem like unreasonable obstructionists and likewise may make the medical community look cruel and apathetic with regard to the plight of test animals. The truth, and possibly a reasonable solution, may lie somewhere between these poles.Dr. Nguyen-Thank you, Claudia. I’ll tell you right now that I am taking the American Medical Association’s line on this. There are too many antiscience rights advocates who want to do away all testing, and that is neither practical nor reasonable. A fair percentage of animal testing does either no harm, or minimal harm given the potential benefits. Why listen to extremists who have no background in science? They want us to do away with extremely valuable work that yields results that saves human lives. It’s completely unreasonable.Dr. Miller-Too many assumptions, Dr. Nguyen, and backing up the AMA may be the easiest thing for us to do, given our ties to the industry, but that doesn’t make it ethical by default. Many animal rights advocates professing more moderate views exist, even in the medical community – I should know, as I am one of them. And much of the research and testing causes pain and suffering to animals, often for products that definitely do not save human lives. Hao, we know each other, and I know that you have a dog. Can your dog suffer? Would you want your dog subjected to a randomly selected currently legal test?Dr. Nguyen-NO, I would not. If your point is that we can do better, I agree. We can do better. If you are advocating better oversight and more humane regulations, I can get behind that. But I strongly believe that human rights trump animal rights. I also believe that we do save lives with animal research in many cases. That doesn’t mean we ought to endorse inhumane treatment of test subjects or the use of test subjects in non-essential tests, as for shampoos.Dr. Miller-Good, we need some common ground. I am not in favor of abolishing all testing-certainly not non-harmful testing, and possibly not minimally harmful testing if there is a good chance that such tests will yield results that will save lives. We might also keep in mind that some testing potentially saves conspecific lives even when it doesn’t save human lives and is therefore not immediately useless on those grounds alone. But if we also agree that animals have a right to life without suffering, then we have a long way to go and a lot of changes to make.Question 1We can’t alternatives such as computer simulations replace tests on animals?Dr. Nguyen-In many cases they have, but computers do have limitations. They are only able to provide models using known data. Because medical research often seeks answers to unknowns, a computer can’t simulate how a certain cell might interact or react with a new drug. Researchers must study actual living systems to understand the potential benefits and dangers of the treatments being tested. Federal law requires us to evaluate all new drugs, devices, and procedures in animals before beginning clinical human trials.Question 2-How many animals are used in research in the United States?Dr. Miller-In 2014, government statistics put the number of laboratory animals used in research at 834,453 a 6.4% drop from 2013.Question 3-Are there any laws that regulate how research animals are treated?Dr. Miler-The Animal Welfare Act, which was signed into law in 1966 is the only Federal law in the United States that regulates the treatment of animals in research. It provides minimum standards for the housing and care of cats and dogs, guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, nonhuman primates, marine mammals, and “other warm-blooded animals”. Resources
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