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answer to each classmate
5 sentences per each classmate response is fine
apa 7th style
use 1 reference per class mate response
# 1
The practitioner is performing a routine examination of a 78-year-old male patient. The patient has a history of diabetes mellitus and worked as a farmer most of his life. The patient denies any history of vision problems during the examination. A visual examination using the Snellen chart demonstrates a decrease in overall visual acuity. Upon further questioning, the patient reports that he no longer drives at night because of a glare. The patient wears corrective lenses. The practitioner advises the patient to see his optometrist or ophthalmologist to follow up on the findings of the examination because the practitioner suspects cataracts.
Case Questions
What risk factors does the patient have for the development of cataracts?
Increasing age. As the lens ages, it loses both its pliability and clarity. Aging alters the biochemical and osmotic balance required for lens. Comorbid disease processes such as Diabetes mellitus alter the biochemical and osmotic balance required for lens clarity. Excessive exposure to sunlight. UV radiation can damage the eye’s surface tissues as well as the cornea and lens.
What are the possible differential diagnoses for the patient’s condition?
Macular degeneration – even though this disease of the eye also presents as a slow, progressive loss of vision, it can be ruled out since it is a central loss of vision and affects the macula. Open-angle glaucoma – possible diagnosis as glaucoma produces slow and painless visual loss, usually beginning peripherally. This is likely able to be ruled out as per open-angle glaucoma often presents with increased intraocular pressure. Cataracts is most likely the diagnosis as patient has a history of working outside in direct sunlight, has a glare at night while driving, and has a cloudy lens during physical exam.
# 2
Case study #1
A 48-year-old female patient presents to the facility complaining of headache and sore throat. The patient reports having a fever of 100.6°F in the last 24 hours, which returned to normal after she took 1,000 mg of acetaminophen. The patient has a history of seasonal allergies; however, she reports that they usually affect her in the spring, and they are never accompanied by fever. As it is now October, the patient is concerned that she may be getting the flu. The patient reports receiving a flu shot at work but thinks the shot may have exposed her to the flu virus. Vital signs taken upon arrival are within normal limits with the exception of temperature, which is 101°F.
Many of the symptoms reported lead you to suspect viral rhinitis as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. What other symptoms reported by the patient would support your theory of viral rhinitis?
Some of the most common symptoms patients with acute viral rhinitis would present include excessive mucus production, rhinorrhea, nasal blockage, sneezing, watery eyes, some degree of nasal and ocular pruritus, muscle aches, headache, and occasionally fever (Catli et al., 2019) (Dunphy et al., 2019).
# 3
Case Study 2
The practitioner is performing a routine examination of a 78-year-old male patient. The patient has a history of diabetes mellitus and worked as a farmer most of his life. The patient denies any history of vision problems during the examination. A visual examination using the Snellen chart demonstrates a decrease in overall visual acuity. Upon further questioning, the patient reports that he no longer drives at night because of a glare. The patient wears corrective lenses. The practitioner advises the patient to see his optometrist or ophthalmologist to follow up on the findings of the examination because the practitioner suspects cataracts.
Case Questions
What are the possible differential diagnoses for the patient’s condition?
Refractive errors, glaucoma, retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, trauma (Dunphy, et. al., 2020).
When the patient asks about treatment options for cataracts, what should the practitioner tell the patient?
When a patients quality of life is jeopardized, surgery should be discussed. There are no non-surgical treatments for cataracts. Cataract surgery is relatively safe, cost effective and usually successful (Dunphy, et. al., 2020).
# 4
A 48-year-old female patient presents to the facility complaining of headache and sore throat. The patient reports having a fever of 100.6°F in the last 24 hours, which returned to normal after she took 1,000 mg of acetaminophen. The patient has a history of seasonal allergies; however, she reports that they usually affect her in the spring, and they are never accompanied by fever. As it is now October, the patient is concerned that she may be getting the flu. The patient reports receiving a flu shot at work but thinks the shot may have exposed her to the flu virus. Vital signs taken upon arrival are within normal limits with the exception of temperature, which is 101°F.
Case Questions
Many of the symptoms reported lead you to suspect viral rhinitis as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. What other symptoms reported by the patient would support your theory of viral rhinitis?
Other symptoms of viral rhinitis include malaise, and sore throat. Symptoms that could be allergic or viral rhinitis include coughing, sneezing, and a burning or sore throat.
(Dunphy et al., 2019).
If the patient has viral rhinitis, what would you expect to see upon physical examination?
Patients can present with a pale face, reddish nose tip and watery eyes and nose. Block nasal passage from edematous, watery, and pale turbinates.
(Catli et al., 2019)
Feeling confident in your initial theory of viral rhinitis, you are still concerned about the patient reporting a previous fever and the fever noted upon arrival. When you inquire about any nasal discharge, the patient reports that when she first began sneezing, the nasal discharge was clear, however, it has progressed to a thick, greenish-yellow color. Does this rule out viral rhinitis?
No, it doesn’t. It just means that the viral rhinitis could be accompanied by a secondary bacterial infection.
(Dunphy et al., 2019)

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